Analysis of Women Entrepreneurship in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao


  • Emraida Calim Ali Cotabato City State Polytechnic College


Women Entrepreneurship, Government Programs and Interventions, Personal Entrepreneurial Competency


This is a quantitative study conducted to analyze the factors that influence the extent of women entrepreneurship in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. The descriptive-correlation research design was used to execute the research and analyze the data. The respondents were the selected women entrepreneurs in the provinces of Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Basilan, Sulu and Tawi-tawi. A modified research questionnaire was used in this study as the main data-gathering instrument. Data were analyzed using the frequency, percentage, mean, multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression. The personal entrepreneurial competency, presence of entrepreneurial role model, government programs and interventions, motivation, entrepreneurial environment, and cultural orientations were studied whether they influence the extent of women entrepreneurship in terms of involvement in the four phases of entrepreneurial activity: searching; planning; marshalling; and implementing. Moreover, age and educational attainment were studied whether they offer significant contingent effect on the relationship of the dependent and independent variables. Results of the study revealed that significant predictors are the personal entrepreneurial competency, government programs and interventions, motivation, and entrepreneurial environment. And the best predictor of women entrepreneurship is government programs and interventions.  Moreover, the age and educational attainment have no significant contingent effect on the relationship of the dependent and independent variables.


Acs, Z. J., Braunerhjelm, P., Audretsch, D. B., & Carlsson, B. (2009). The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 32(1),, 15–30.

Adamek J. (2010). Mikrofinanse islamskie – założenia, produkty, praktyka, CeDeWu, Warszawa .

Aidis, R.; Welter, F.; Smallbone, D. and Isakova, N. (2007). Female Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies: The case of Lithuania and Ukraine. Feminist Economics 13(2), April 2007, p.157-183.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, , 179–211.

Allen, I., Elam, A., Langowitz, N. & Dean, M. . (2008). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2007 Report on Women and Entrepreneurship. Babson College & London Business School: Kauffman Foundation.

Anggadwita, G., Dhewanto, W. (2015). he influence of personal attitude and social perception on women entrepreneurial intentions in micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Indonesia’, International. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, forthcoming [online] (accessed 25 February 2015).

Anggadwita, G., Mulyaningsih, H.D., Ramadani, V., Arwiyah, M.Y. (2015). Women entrepreneurship in Islamic perspective: a driver for social change. International Journal for Business and Globalization Vol 15, No 3, .

Annekova, V. (2001). Global Approach to Fostering Development of Women Entrepreneurship. FSA Contemporary Issues, IREX, .

Arenius, P., & Minniti, M. (2005). Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 24(3),, 233–247.

ARMM Webpage. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2018, from ARMM:

Autio, E., & Acs, Z. J. (2007). Individual and country-level determinants of growth aspiration in new ventures. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 27.

Autio, E., & Acs, Z. J. (2010). Intellectual property protection and the formation of entrepreneurial growth aspirations. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 4(3), 234–251.

Ayadurai, S. (2004). An Insight Into the Constraints Faced by Women Entrepreneurs in a War-Torn Area: Case Study ofthe Northeast ofSri Lanka. Paper presented at the 50th World Conference of the International Council for Small Business (ICSB), Washington.

Baron, R. A. (2004). The cognitive perspective: a valuable tool for answering entrepreneurship's basic why questions. Journal ofBusiness Venturing, 19(2), 221–239.

Bartol, K. M., & Martin, D., (1998). Management, Int. Edition, Irwin, New York. McGraw-Hill, .

Bathla, D. (2013). Theories of entrepreneurship. Retrieved June 19, 2018, from Slideshare:

Berenson, M.L., Levine, D. M., Krehbiel, T.C. (2012). Basic business statistics: Concepts and Applications 12 Ed. Prentice Hall.

Bosma, N., van Praag, M., Thurik, R. & de Wit, G. (2012). The value of human and social capital investments for the business performance of start-ups. Small Business Economics 23(3), 227-236.

Boyd, N. & Vozikis, G. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. . Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(4), 63–77.

Bruce, D. (1999). Do husbands matter? Married women entering self-employment. . Small Business Economics, 13, , 317–329.

Brush, C. (1992). Research on women business owners: past trends, a new perspective and future directions, . Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 16 (4), 5-30.

Brush, C. G., Carter, N. M., Gatewood, E. J., Greene, P. J. and Hart, M. M., (2006). The use of bootstrapping by women entrepreneurs in positioning for growth. . Venture Capital, 8(1):, 15 – 31.

Brush, C.G., Greene, P.G., (2016). Closing the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: A New Perspective on Policies and Practices (OECD Working paper). OECD, Paris, France.

Bruton, G. D., Ahlstrom, D., & Han-Lin, L. (2010). Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: where are we now and where do we need to move in the future? . Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 34(3), 421–440.

Cabrera, E. & Mauricio (2017). Factors affecting the success of women’s entrepreneurship: a review of literature. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship 9(1), 31-65.

Carter, N. (2002). The role of risk orientation on financing expectations in new venture creation: Does sex matter? Babson College, Wellesley, MA: Frontiers of Entrepreneurial Research.

Carter, N. M., Gartner, W. B., Shaver, K. G., & Gatewood, E. J. (2003). The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(1), 13–39.

Carter, S. & Shaw, E. (2006). Women’s business ownership: Recent research and policy developments. Report to the Small Business Service. DTI.

Center for Women’s Business Research (2004). Biennial update on women-owned businesses.retrieved from: Businesses-Documents-Substantial. Accessed 21 February 2011.

Census on Population (2015). Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved from

Chen, G. G. (2004). General self-efficacy and self-esteem: Toward theoretical and empirical distinction between correlated self-evaluations. . Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 375–395.

Cigaral, I. (2018). Philippines 9th best market for women entrepreneurs — report. PhilStar.

Clow, K.E, James, K.E. (2014). Essentials of Marketing Research Putting Research into Practice. Wadsworth Cengage Learing, Boston, USA.

Corbett, A. (2007). Learning asymmetries and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. . J. Bus. Ventur. 22 (1), 97–118.

Cressy, R. (2002). Introduction: funding gaps, . The Economic Journal 112 (477), 1-16.

Dana, L. (2009). ‘Religion as an explanatory variable for entrepreneurship’,. Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp.87–99.

Davis, A. E., & Shaver, K. G. (2012). Understanding gendered variations in business growth intentions across the life course. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(3), 495–512.

Davidsson, P. (1995). Culture, structure and regional levels of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 7(1), 41-62.

Davidsson, P. & Honig (2003). The role ofhuman and social capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301–331

De Clercq, D., Arenius, P. (2006). The role of knowledge in business start-up activity. . Int. Small Bus. J. 24 (4), 339–358.

Deng, S., Hassan, L., & Jivan, S. (1995). Female entrepreneurs doing business in Asia: A special investigation. . Journal of Small Business and Enterprise, 12, , 160–180.

Dew, A. (2013). The gender global entrepreneurship and development index. Global Entrepreneurship and Development Institute.

Dhaliwal, S. (2000). Entrepreneurship—a learning process: the experiences of Asian female entrepreneurs and women in business,. MCB University press, Vol. 42 No. 8 , 445-452.

Diaz, P. H. & Fajardo H.R. (2015). Entrepreneurship Study and Practice. Small Enterprises Research and Development Foundation

Drucker, P. (1993). Innovation & entrepreneurship. . New York: Harper Collins .

DTI-Official Website. Retrieved from Retrieved on July 31, 2018

Dunn, T. & Holtz-Eakin, D. (2000). Financial capital, human capital, and the transition to self-employment: Evidence from intergenerational links. Journal ofLabor Economics, 18(2),, 282–305.

Ebrahim, M., & Schϕtt, T. (2011). Entrepreneurial intention promoted by perceived capabilities, risk propensity and opportunity awareness: a global study. 56th International Council of Small Businesses, Stockholm, Sweden.

Familoni, O. (2007). Leadership Styles of Great Men. Lagos: Concept Publications.

Fernández, J., Liñán, F., & Santos, F. J. (2009). Cognitive aspects of Potential entrepreneurs in southern and northern europe: an analysis Using Gem-data. . Revista de Economía Mundial, 23, 151-178.

Fornahl, D. (2003). Entrepreneurial activities in a regional context. In Dirk Fornahl & Thomas Brenner (Eds.), Co- operation, networks, and institutions in regional innova- tion systems , 38–57.

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2007). Report on Women Entrepreneurship, Executive Summary, Babson.

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2010). Report on Women Entrepreneurship. Executive Summary, Babson.

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2011). Report on Women Entrepreneurship. Executive Summary, Babson.

Gill, R. & Ganesh (2007). Empowerment, constraint, and the entrepreneurial self: A study of white women entrepreneurs. Journal of Applied Commmunication Research 35(3): 268:293.

Greene, P.G.; Hart, M.; Gatewood, E.; Brush, C.G. & Carter, N. . (2003). Women entrepreneurs: moving front and center. An overview of research and theory, United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (USASBE). White Papers.

Grilo, I. & Thurik, A.R. (2005). Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 1(4).

Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., Wasti, S. A., & Sikdar, A. (2009). The role ofgender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(2), 397–417.

Guzmán, J., & Santos, F. J. (2001). The booster function and the entrepreneurial quality: an application to the province of Seville. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 13(3), 211–228.

Hair, J.F. Jr., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson Educated Limited.

Haus, I., Steinmetz, H., Isidor, R., & Kabst, R. (2013). Gender effects on entrepreneurial intention: a meta-analytical structural equation model. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 5(2), 130–156.

Helmke, G., & Levitsky, S. (2004). Informal institutions and comparative politics: a research agenda. Perspectives on Politics, 204, 725–740.

Hisrich, R. & Brush, C.G. (1986). The Women Entrepreneur: Starting, Financing and managing a Successful New Business. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. (1998). Entrepreneurship. . Boston,MA: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Honig, B. (1998). What determines success? Examining the human, financial, and social capital of Jamaican micro-entrepreneurs. . Journal of Business Venturing, 13, , 371–394.

Hoque, J., Rahman, A., Razia, S. (2013). ‘Women entrepreneurship development under Islamic perspective: a study on some selected women entrepreneurs of Bangladesh’,. Proceedings of 9th Asian Business Research Conference, Dhaka, Bangladesh

House, R. J. Q. (1999). Cultural influences on leadership and organizations. Advances in Global Leadership, 1, 171 – 233.

Iheduru, N.G. (2002). Women Entrepreneurship and Development: The Gendering of Microfinance in Nigeria. Paper Presented at the 8th International Interdisciplinary Congress on at Makeree University, Kampala-Uganda Women.

Internation Labour Organization. (2003). Small and Medium Enterprise Development. Globalization and Gender Briefs Series, IFP/SEED, No. 3,.

Internation Labour Organization. (2011). Small and Medium Enterprise Development. Globalization and Gender Briefs Series, IFP/SEED, No. 3,.

Jamali, D. (2009). Constraints and opportunities facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries: A relational perspective. Gender in Management: . An International Journal, 2009, Vol. 24 Iss: 4 p. 232 – 251.

Jennings, J.,& Brush, C.G. (2013). Research on Women Entrepreneurs: Challenges to (and from) the Broader Entrepreneurship Literature? The Academy of Management Annals 7(1):661-713.

Kalleberg, A.L., & Leicht, K.T. (1991). Gender and organizational performance: Determinants of small business survival and success. Academy of Management Journal, 34, , 136–161.

Kantor, P. (1999). Promoting Women’s Entrepreneurship Development based on Good Practice Programmes. Some Experiences form the North to South” ILO Working Paper on Series on Women’s Entrepreneurship Development and Gender in Enterprises (WEDGE) .

Kelley, D., Brush, C., Greene, P., Herrington, M., Ali, A. & Kew, P. . (2016). GEM Special Report: Women’s Entrepreneurship 2015. Wellesley, MA: Babson College.

Kilby, P. (1968). Hunting the Heffalin (Ed). Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, New York, .

Kim, P. H. et al., (2006). Access (Not) Denied: The Impact of Financial, Human, and Cultural Capital on Entrepreneurial Entry in the United States. . Small Business Economics, 27, , 5–22.

King, E. M. (2008). Vietnam's Decree on Microfinance: A Flawed Attempt to Create. Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal, Vol. 17, No.1, 187-207.

Knabe, A. (2009). Applying Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to a Study of Online Course Adoption in Public Relations Education. Marquette University.

Koellinger, P. E. (2007). ”I think I can, I think I can”: Overconfidence and Entrepreneurial Behavior’. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, , 502–527.

Koellinger, P. (2008). Why are some entrepreneurs more innova- tive than others? . Small Business Economics, 31(1), 21–37.

Krueger, N. F. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5–6),, 411–432.

Krueger, n., Liñán, F., & Nabi, G. (2013). Cultural values and entrepreneurship. . Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(09-10), 703-707. doi: 10.1080/08985626.2013.862961.

Lafuente, E., Vaillant, Y., & Rialp, J. (2007). Regional differences in the influence of role models: Comparing the entrepreneurial process of rural catalonia. Regional Studies, 41(6), 779–795.

Landini, F., Arrighetti, A., Caricati, L. & Monacelli, N. (2015). Entrepreneurial intention in the time of crisis: a field study. Paper presented at DRUID 2015 conference. Retrieved from aiodmc01ss.pd.

Lange,P.A.M., Kruglanski,A.W & Higgins, E.T. (2012). The Theory of Planned Behavior.

Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 341–364.

Lazear, E. P. (2005). Entrepreneurship. Journal of Labor Economics, 23(4), 649–680.

Lerner, M., & Almor, T. (2002). Relationships among strategic capabilities and the performance of women-owned small ventures. Journal of Small Business Management, 40(2), 109–125.

Levesque, M., & Minniti, M. (2006). The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(2), 177–194.

Levie, J., & Autio, E. (2008). A theoretical grounding and test ofthe GEMmodel. Small Business Economics, 313, 235–263.

List of Establishments (2016). Philippines Statistics Authority. Retrieved from:

Lukeš, M. E. (2013). Faktory ovlivňující vstup do podnikání: Začínající podnikatelé v České republice. . Politická ekonomie, 61, , 229–247.

Luthans, F., & Ibrayeva, E. S. (2006). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy in Central Asian transition economies: quantitative and qualitative analyses. Journal ofInternational Business Studies, 37(1), 92–110.

Makina, D., and Malobola, L. M., (2004). “Impact Assessment of Microfinance Programmes, Including Lessons from Khula Enterprise Finance”. Development in Southern Africa, Vol. 21, No. 5, 799-814.

Malolos, C. F. (2017). Level of perceived entrepreneurial skills of students at the Western Philippines University, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan. DLSU Research Congress 2017, De La Salle University, Philippines.

Manolova, T., Brush, C., Edelman, L., & Greene, P. (2002). Internationalization of small firms: personal factors revisited. International Small Business Journal, 20(1), 9–32.

Mansor, N. (2005). Women in Business: Determinants for Venturing in Malaysians SMEs. www.tbs.ubbc/

Mayoux, L., (2001). Jobs, Gender and Small Enterprises: Getting the Policy Environment Right. An ILO Working Paper on Series on Women’s Entrepreneurship Development and Gender in Enterprises (WEDGE) NO. 15, .

McClelland, D.C. (1961). Motivational Needs Theory. Business.

Meng, K. (2012). Marketing Research for Beginners A Practical Handbook. Wadsworth Cengage Learing, Boston, USA.

Minniti, M. (2005). Entrepreneurship and network externalities. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 1-27.

Minniti, M., Bygrave, W. D., & Autio, E. (2005). Global entrepreneurship monitor. 2004 Report on Women and Entrepreneurship.

Minniti M., Naude, W. (2010). What do we know about the patterns and determinants of female entreprenruship across countries? European Journal of Development Research Vol 22,3, 277-293.

Mitra, R. (2002). The growth pattern of women-run enterprises: An empirical study in India. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 72: 217–237.

Moini, A. (1995). An inquiry into successful exporting: an empirical investigation using a three-stage model. Journal ofSmall Business Management, 33(3), 9–25.

Mueller, S.L. & Goic, S. (2003). East-West differences in entrepreneurial self-efficacy: Implications for entrepreneurship education in transition economies. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 1(4), 613–632.

Naktiyok, A., Karabey, C. N., & Gulluce, A. C. (2010). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention: the Turkish case. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(4), 419–435.

Noguera, M., Alvarez, C., & Urbano, D. (2013). Socio-cultural factors and female entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9(2), 183–197.

Nuepert, K. E., Krueger, N. F., Chua, B. L., et al., (2004). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and its relationship to business plan competitions: an international examination. International Entrepreneurship: The Globalization of SME’s Orientation, Environment and Strategy (pp., 126–141. OECD. (1998). Fostering Entrepreneurship, the OECD jobs strategy, . Paris: OECD.

O'Gorman & MacIntosh. (2015). The Global Management Series Research Methods for Business & Management 2nd Ed. Goodfellow Publishers Ltd.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2002). OECD Employment Outlook. Paris: OECD.

Orser, B., Spence, M.,Riding, A., & Carrington, C. A. (2010). Gender and export propensity. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(5), 933–957.

Ostgaard, T.A. & Birley, S. (1996). New growth and personal networks, . Journal of Business Research, 36(1), , 37–50.

Paul, S., & Sarma, V. (2013). Economic crisis and female entre- preneurship: evidence from countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia . (No. 13/08). CREDITResearch.

Performance Audit Report, (2017).Commission on Audit.

Pines, A. M., Lerner, M., & Schwartz, D. . (2010). Gender differences in entrepreneurship: equality, diversity and inclusion in times of global crisis. Equality, diversity and inclusion. An International journal, 29(2), 186– 198.

Pinillos, M. J., & Reyes, L. (2011). Relationship between individualist– collectivist culture and entrepreneurial activity: evidence from Global entrepreneurship monitor data. Small Business Economics, 37(1), 23-37. doi: 10.1007/s11187-009-9230-6.

Przedsiębiorczość kobiet w Polsce. (2011). Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości, Warszawa.

PSA-ARMM Official Webpage. (n.d.). Retrieved July 15, 2018, from

Ramadani, V., Gërguri-Rashiti, S. and Fayolle, A. . (2015). Female Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies: Trends and Challenges, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Ramos-Rodríguez, R. A. (2010). What you know or who you know? The role of intellectual and social capital in opportunity recognition. International Small Business Journal, 28,, 566–582.

Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: a meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners’ personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal ofWork and Organizational Psychology, 164, 353–385.

Reynolds, P., Bygrave, W.D., Autio, E., Cox, L.W. & Hay, M. (2003). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2002 exclusive report. Wellesley, MA: Babson College.

Rotefoss, B., Kolvereid, L., . (2005). Aspiring, nascent and fledgling entrepreneurs: an investigation of the business start-up process. . Entrep. Reg. Dev. 17, 109–127.

RPDO-ARMM Official Webpage. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2018, from

Salimath, M. S., & Cullen, J. B. . (2010). Formal and informal institutional effects on entrepreneurship: a synthesis of nation-level research. International Journal ofOrganizational Analysis, 183,, 358–385.

Schumpeter, J. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge. M.A. Harvard University.

Shane, S. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science 11(4),, 448-469.

Shane, S. A., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise ofentrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.

Shane, S., Locke, E.A., & Collins, C.J. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257–279.

Singh, S.P., Reynolds, R.G., & Muhammad, S. (2001). A gender-based performance analysis of micro and small enterprise in Java, Indonesia. . Journal of Small Business Management, 39, , 174–182.

Swain, R. B., Nguyen, V. S., and Vo, V. T. (2008). Microfinance and Poverty Reduction in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. African and Asian Studies,Vol. 7,, 191-215.

Thomson, S. (2002). Women’s Entrepreneurship Development in Micro and Small Enterprises, A case Study in the Ukraine. A Paper Presented to the School of International Training, International Studies, Organizations, and Social Justice, Geneva, Switzerland,.

Thurik, A. R., Carree, M. A., Van Stel, A., & Audretsch, D. B. (2008). Does self-employment reduce unemployment? JournalofBusinessVenturing, 23(6), 673–686.

Van Auken, H., Fry, F. L., & Stephens, P. (2006). The influence of role models on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 11(2),, 157–167.

Van Gelderen, M. W., & Jansen, P. G. W. (2006). Autonomy as a startup motive. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 13(1), 23–32.

Verheul, I., & Thurik, A.R. (2001). Start-up capital: does gender matter? Small Business Economics 16, 329-345.

Verheul, I., Wennekers, A.R.M., Audretsch, D.B. &. Thurik, A.R. (2002). An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European-US Comparison.

Verheul I., van Stel, A., Thurik, R. (2005). Explaining female and male entreprneurship at the country level. ERIM Report Series Research in Management.

Verheul, I., & Van Mil, L. (2011). What determines the growth ambition of Dutch early-stage entrepreneurs? . International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 3(2), 183–207.

Vossenberg, S. (2013). Women Entrepreneurship Promotion in Developing Countries: What explains the gender gap in entrepreneurship and how to close it? Working paper nº 2013/08. Maastricht School of Management, 08.

Wagner, J., & Sternberg, R. (2004). Start-up activities, indi- vidual characteristics, and the regional milieu: Lessons for entrepreneurship support policies from German micro data. Annals of Regional Science, 38(2), 219–240.

Walker, J. K., Jeger, M., & Kopecki, D. (2013). The role of perceived abilities, subjective norm, and intentions. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 22(2),181–202.

Wennberg, K., Pathak, S., &Autio, E. (2013). How culture molds the effects ofself-efficacy and fear offailure on entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 25(9–10), 756–780.

Westhead, P., Ucbasaran, D., & Wright, M. (2003). Differences between private firms owned by novice, serial and portfolio entrepreneurs: implications for policy-makers and practitioners. Regional Studies, 37(2), 187–200.

Wong, P. K. (2005). Antecedents for entrepreneurial propensity in Singapore. NUS Entrepreneurship Centre working papers No. WP2005-12. Singapore: NUS, 12.

World Bank. (2005). Doing Business in 2005, Removing Obstacles to Growth, Washington. World Bank, co-published with the International Finance Corporation and Oxford University Press.

Wyrwich, M., Stuetzer, M., Sternberg, R. (2016). Entrepreneurial role models, fear of failure, and institutional approval of entrepreneurship: A tale of two regions. Small Business Economics, 46, 467-492.

Zawislak, P.A.; Castro-Lucas, C.L.; Souza, E.C; . (2007). R&D, Entrepreneurship and innovation in Brazil: where is the missing link? . In Proc. IAMOT. Miami (USA).

Zawislak, P.A., Borges, M., Wegner, D., Santos, A., Castro-Lucas C. (2008). Towards the Innovation Function. Journal of Technology, Management and Innovation.




How to Cite

Ali, E. C. (2020). Analysis of Women Entrepreneurship in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. International Journal of Management Excellence (ISSN: 2292-1648), 15(2), 2171–2206. Retrieved from